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and  the  Macedonian  Population. 

It  is  well  known  from  history  that  the  Balkan 
Peninsula  was  through  centuries  the  theatre  of  the 
struggle  of  the  newly  arrived  nations,  who  either 
moved  across  it  further  on,  or  settled  on  its  territories. 
But  not  one  of  the  conquerors  has  succeeded  to  create 
one  unit  out  of  the  nations  of  this  Peninsula,  as  its 
oreographic  construction  made  a  great  obstacle  to  such 
an  unification. 

When  in  the  middle  of  the  XlVth  century  the  Turks 
for  the  first  time  crossed  over  to  Europe,  they  found  in 
the  Balkan  Peninsula  three  empires — the  entirely 
exhausted  Byzantine  Empire,  weak  and  dependent 
Bulgaria,  and  the  powerful  Serb  Empire.  The  centre 
of  the  Serb  Empire  was  then  not  Serbia  as  she  was 
before  the  war  of  1912,  bvit  the  Old  Serbia  and  Northern 
Macedonia,  with  Skoplye  (Uskub)  as  the  capital  town. 

Having  taken  firm  footing  in  the  Balkan  Peninsula, 
the  Turks  have  gradually  extended  their  rule  over  it, 
and  even  further  outside  its  boundaries.  For  more 
than  four  centuries  the  greater  part  of  the  territories  of 
that  Peninsula  belonged  to  the  Turkish  Empire,  and 
the  nations,  living  on  those  territories,  after  stubborn 
and  desperate  struggles,  succumbed  under  their  power. 


Bat  although  all  those  nations  during  the  whole  time 
of  the  Turkish  domination  were  simply  Turkish 
"  Rayah,"  mass  of  people  without  any  rights,  and 
although  they  were  constantlj'^  and  in  all  sorts  of 
manners  oppressed,  still  the  great  majority  of  them 
succeeded  in  preserving  their  distinctive  national 
features  :  their  religion,  language,  national  customs, 
etc.  And  when  in  the  beginning  of  the  XlXth  century 
the  Turkish  power  began  to  decay,  when  some  of  the 
Balkan  nations  rose  up  to  liberate  themselves  from  the 
Turkish  direct  government,  then  the  national  conscious- 
ness of  the  nations,  up  to  then  subjugated,  commenced 
strongly  to  awake,  each  group  naturally  aspiring  to  be 
united  with  their  natural  elements. 

That  tendency  is  permanent  and  indomitable.  It 
has  created  in  the  Balkan  Peninsula  the  questions  of 
Nationalities,  of  which  one  of  the  most  important  ones 
is  exactly  The  Jlacedoiiian  Qufstion.  That  question  is 
still  on  the  Order  of  the  day,  inasmuch  as  the  Bulgars 
continue  to  make  efforts,  although  without  any  right 
or  reason,  to  prove  to  the  world,  that  the  population  of 
Macedonia  is  of  the  Bulgar  origin. 

To  throw  more  and  true  light  on  that  question,  we 
will  here  state,  although  in  the  shortest  sketch,  certain 
historical  undoubted  facts,  which  will  clearly  prove 
how  entirely  groundless  is  the  Bulgarian  assertion  that 
the  Macedonian  population  is  of  the  Bulgar  origin. 

When  the  Slavs  an*ived  in  the  Balkan  Peninsula, 
they  have  settled  also  in  Macedonia.  The  Macedonian 
Slavs  are  therefore  a  part  of  the  Southern  Slavs.  But 
besides  the  general  name  of  Slavs  the  specific  name  of 
the  Serbs  is  early  enough  mentioned  in  Macedonia. 
The  Byzantine  Emperor,  Constantine  Porphyrogenete, 
wrote  about  the  I'oOth  year,  that  the  town  Srbitsa,  in 
the  Salonica  district  along  the  river  Bistritsa  at  the  foot 
of  Olympus,  got  its  name  from  the  Serbs  who  lived 
there.  That  town  is  known  to-day  under  the  Turkish 
name  Serf  id  je. 


The  Serbs  came  to  the  Balkan  Peninsula  already  in 
the  first  half  of  the  Vllth  century.  The  Serbs,  like 
other  Slavs  of  the  Peninsula,  were  of  the  Indo-European 
race.  Towards  the  end  of  the  seventh  century  a 
Mongol  tribe,  called  Bulgars,  invaded  the  territory 
between  the  Danube  and  the  Balkan,  and  subjugated 
the  Slavs  who  lived  there.  Being  of  quite  a  different 
race,  speaking  quite  different  language,  the  Bulgars' 
culture  was  quite  different  from  that  which  the  Balkan 
Slavs  possessed.  The  Southern  Slavs,  conquered  by 
the  Bulgars,  did  not  like  their  conquerors.  Their 
hatred  was  quite  intelligible,  seeing  that  their  masters 
were  oppressors,  men  of  different  race,  language  and 
culture.  But  notwithstanding  all  those  differences  and 
hatred,  the  relations  became  gradually  more  intimate, 
mutually  influencing  each  other,  accommodating  them- 
selves to  each  other,  until  at  last  they  have  melted  into 
one  nation.  The  old  Turanian  name  of  the  conquerors, 
Bulgars,  was  retained  as  a  common  name  of  this  mixed 
Turanian-Slav  nation. 

The  invaders,  who  arrived  as  Nomads,  gradually 
settled  down  and  became  agricultural  people  like  the 
Slavs  were.  Being  in  minority  by  their  numbers  they 
were  obliged  to  accommodate  themselves  to  the  Slav 
race.  Their  laiiguage  was  gradually  disappearing  until 
it  was  entirely  replaced  by  the  Slav  language.  This 
process  of  assimilation  of  the  Turanian  invaders  by  the 
Slavs  took  about  250  years  until  it  was  accomplished. 
Accordingly  the  Slav  language,  which  the  Bulgars 
adopted  from  the  conquered  Slavs,  is  the  only  circum- 
stance which  allows  them  to  consider  themselves  as 
belonging  to  the  Slav  group  of  nations.  Otherwise 
there  would  be  no  place  for  them  in  that  group. 

Therefore  it  is  perfectly  clear  that  the  Macedonian 
Slavs,  Serbs,  are  something  quite  different  than  the 
Slavonised  Bulgars. 

Let  us  now  proceed  further. 

The  territory  on  which  the  process  of  creation  of  the 
Bulgar  nation  was  accomplished  is  exactly  that  one 
which  the  Bulgars  have  occupied  on  their  arrival  on 


the  Balkan  Peninsula.  It  does  not  stretch  towards  the 
West  further  of  the  river  Iskra  in  the  contemporary 
Bulgaria.  Nor  it  did  stretch  towards  the  South 
further  than  to  the  Balkan  mountain.  Up  to  the  year 
800  the  Bulgarian  State's  boundary  on  the  West  was 
formed  by  Iskra,  and  till  861  year  it  did  not  go  further 
southwards  than  x\])  to  the  Balkan  mountain.  The 
difference  between  the  Bulgars,  within  the  boundaries 
which  we  just  indicated,  and  the  Slavs  outside  those 
boundaries,  has  been  very  early  pointed  out  by  the 
Byzantine  writers.  They  call  "  Slovenia "  all  the 
South-Slav  territory  from  the  Adriatic  Sea  to  the 
Mountain  of  Rhodope,  to  distinguish  it  from  Bulgaria, 
and  the  people  living  in  that  territory  they  call 
"  Slovens,"  to  distinguish  them  from  the  Bulgars. 
Even  in  our  days  the  Bulgarian  nation,  living  within 
those  boundaries,  is  by  all  its  features  quite  distinct 
from  all  other  South  Slavs. 

When  the  Tsar  of  the  Bulgars,  Assen  II.,  attacked 
suddenly  and  defeated  the  Despot  of  Epirus,  Theodor 
Komnene,  he  became  the  master  of  all  the  territories 
from  Adrianople  up  to  Durazzo,  including  Skoplye  and 
Oclirida.  Out  of  gratitude  for  that  victory  Assen  built 
in  his  capital,  Trnovo,  the  Church  of  40  Martyrs.  In 
an  inscription  in  that  church  he  describes  how  he  made 
Despot  Theodor  his  prisoner,  and  how  he  had  subja- 
gated  all  the  countries,  Greek,  Albanian  and  Serb." 
But  that  Bulgar  reign  in  Macedonia  lasted  altogether 
only  sixteen  years. 

The  war  between  the  Serbian  King  Stephen  Dechanski 
on  one  side,  and  the  allied  Byzantines,  under  Andronic 
III.  and  Bulgars,  under  their  king  Michael  Shishman, 
and  the  victory  of  Dechanski  in  the  battle  of  Velboozde 
(to-day's  Kiustendil)  on  2&  July,  1330,  were  of  immense 
importance  for  the  solution  of  the  question  of  the 
supremacy  of  the  Serbs  over  Bulgars  during  the  entire 
middle  age,  and  for  the  destiny  of  Macedonia  as  well. 


When  in  the  year  1346  the  Serbian  Archbishop  was 
proclaimed  in  Macedonia  the  Patriarch  of  the  Serbs 
and  Greeks  of  the  Serb  State,  the  Bulgars  not  only  had 
made  no  protest,  but  that  proclamation  was  made  with 
the  consent  of  the  Bulgarian  Patriarch  in  Trnovo. 

Further,  the  Bulgars  have  not  protested  when,  imme- 
diately after  that,  the  Serbian  King  Dooshan  was 
crowned  in  Macedonia  as  the  Tsar  of  the  Serbs,  while 
the  Byzantines  and  the  Greeks  have  made  their  pro- 
tests. All  that  Bulgaria  did  consciously,  considering 
Macedonia  as  Serbian  country. 

The  Turks  have  conquered  Macedonia  after  the  battle 
on  Maritsa  (1371)  from  the  Serbs  as  a  Serb  country. 
In  all  the  monuments  and  chronicles,  Serb  and  foreign 
ones,  it  is  reported  that  in  the  battle  on  Maritsa  the 
Serb  army  was  defeated,  and  that  in  that  battle  the 
Serb  King  Vookashin,  and  some  other  Serb  dynasts, 

But  even  that  fateful  battle  has  not  destroyed  the 
Serb  reign  in  Macedonia,  and  in  that  country  the  Serb 
influence  continued  to  be  paramount  all  up  to  the 
death  of  Sultana  Mara  (1487),  the  daughter  of  the 
Serbia's  ruler  George  Brankovich. 

The  national  consciousness  of  the  Macedonian  Serbs 
has  been  kept  alive  during  the  whole  time  of  the 
Turkish  reign. 

Whenever  since  the  middle  of  the  XVIIth  century 
Austria  attacked  the  Turks,  Serbs  from  all  Serb  coun- 
tries flocked  into  the  Austrian  army  as  volunteers  to 
help  to  liberate  the  Serb  countries  from  the  Turkish 

Prince  Eugen  of  Savoy,  having  won  the  decisive 
victory  over  the  Turks  at  Zenta  in  the  year  1697,  gives 
public  and  warm  praise  to  the  Serb  volunteers,  who 
have  helped  essentially  to  win  that  fateful  victory. 
The  Serbs  fought  under  the  command  of  their  own 
commander,  Voyvode  John  Monasterly,  whose  very 
name  shows  that  he  was  a  Serb  of  Macedonia,  and  who 
also  later  was  something  like  a  political  leader  of  the 
Serbs  in  Hungary. 


When  in  1788  Austria  declared  war  to  Turkey,  Serbs 
fi'om  all  Serb  territories  went  as  volunteers  to  join  the 
Austrian  army  to  fight  for  the  liberation  of  Serbia. 
That  army  had  on  that  occasion  nine  officers,  born 
Serbs  of  Macedonia,  besides  other  men  from  that 

When  in  the  beginning  of  the  XlXth  century  Serbia 
started  her  own  struggle  for  liberation,  there  was  not  a 
corner  of  the  Serb  territories  from  which  Serb  volun- 
teers did  not  hurry  to  help  their  brethren.  Some  of 
the  Macedonian  Serbs  occupy  prominent  places  in  the 
history  of  Serbia's  liberation.  Whole  Macedonia  par- 
ticipated by  her  soul  in  that  liberation,  and  it  could  be 
justly  said  that  the  great  number  of  the  Serbs  of 
Macedonia  took  part  in  the  creation  of  the  free  Serbia. 

It  is  true  that  the  Bulgars  in  the  middle  ages  reigned 
in  Macedonia  for  a  short  time.  But  they  took  that 
country  by  the  force  of  arms,  without  any  other  right. 
As  the  Bulgars  at  that  time  were  only  l)y  half  the  Slavs 
and  by  half  the  Mongols,  could  they  have  the  power  to 
assimilate  the  purely  Slav  element  which  then  lived  in 
Macedonia  ?     Evidently  not ! 

And  then  where  is  that  right  on  which  the  Bulgars 
lean  when  pretending  that  the  Macedonian  population 
is  of  the  Bulgar  origin,  and  that  therefore  Macedonia 
ought  to  belong  to  them  ? 

Liberated  principally  by  the  Rtissian  help  and  co- 
operation of  the  Serbian  nation  and  its  army,  the 
Bulgars  have  since  the  San  Stefano  Treaty  (1878)  con- 
tracted Megalomania  and  the  desire  for  hegemony  in 
the  Balkan  Peninsula.  As  it  is  well  known  that  Treaty 
let  Macedonia,  large  portion  of  the  Old  Serbia,  and 
even  some  parts  of  present  Serbia,  enter  into  composi- 
tion of  Bulgaria.  According  to  that  Treaty  Bulgaria 
was  to  comprise  a  territory  of  164,000  square  kilometres 
with  4|  million  inhabitants. 

The  motives,  from  which  General  Ignyatiyeff  attached 
Macedonia  to  Bulgaria,  were  by  no  means  of  ethno- 
graphic nature  ;  they  were  simply  the  motives  of  the 
autocratic  Russia's  imperialistic  policy. 


Although  the  Berlin  Congress  of  1878  had  reduced 
the  extent  of  the  San  Stefano  Bulgaria,  the  Bulgars 
commenced  since  that  time  to  claim  Macedonia  as 
rightly  belonging  to  them,  and  to  dream  only  of  Great 
Bulgaria  as  drawn  up  in  the  San  Stefano  Treaty.  For 
some  time  the  Russians  encouraged  them  in  that  atti- 
tude. Those  Russian  sympathies  for  the  Bulgarians 
were  spread  in  other  countries  too,  and  there  are  people 
who  in  consequence  believe  that  after  all  the  Bulgars 
must  have  had  some  right  on  Macedonia. 

In  the  study  of  this  question  it  is  important  to 
remember  a  fact.  After  the  Serbs  in  the  beginning  of 
the  XlXth  century  have  succeeded  to  liberate  a  part  of 
their  country  by  an  open  and  through  years  sustained 
revolution  against  the  Turks,  the  Serb  people  remaining 
under  the  direct  rule  of  Turkey  were  bitterly  perse- 
cuted, hated  and  cruelly  maltreated  by  the  Turks.  No 
Serb  was  sure  of  his  life  or  his  property.  A  man  ran 
all  sorts  of  risks  if  he  were  to  call  himself  a  Serb  before 
the  Turkish  authorities  or  before  the  Turks,  because 
the  name  "  Serb  "  was  a  synonyme  for  a  revolutionary 
and  an  enemy  of  the  Turks.  At  the  same  time  the 
name  "  Bulgar  "  became  the  synonyme  of  a  quiet,  loyal 
and  obedient  "  rayah."  Therefore  it  is  not  astonishing 
that  many  a  Serb  of  Macedonia,  to  protect  himself 
against  the  persecution,  answered  the  question  "to 
what  nationality  you  belong  ?  "  by  saying  that  he  is  a 
Bulgar.  That  was  often  the  only  means  to  save  his 
own  life  and  property,  or  the  life  of  his  family.  This 
difi&cult  position  of  the  Serl)s  in  Macedonia  the  Bulgars 
have  later  on  cleverly  exploited,  by  saying  that  the 
people  of  Macedonia  call  themselves  Bulgars,  and  that 
therefore  they  really  are  Bulgars. 

This  falsification  received  a  mighty  support  since  the 
creation  of  the  Bulgarian  Exarchate  in  1870.  Having 
obtained  the  right  to  have  their  own  bishops,  priests 
and  teachers  in  all  Turkish  territories — which  right 
was  denied  to  the  Serbs — the  Bulgars  transformed  that 
concession  into  a  mighty  instrument  of  propaganda. 


The  Russian,  Bulgar  and  Serb  churches  use  the  same 
old  Slavonic  language,  which,  although  not  identical 
with  the  vernacular  languages  of  those  peoples,  is  quite 
near  enough  to  be  understood.  Placed  before  the 
alternative,  either  to  continue  to  attend  the  Greek 
churches,  the  Greek  language  of  which  they  did  not 
understand,  or  to  attend  the  Bulgar  churches,  the  old 
Slavonic  language  of  which  they  could  understand,  the 
Serbs  of  Macedonia  naturally  decided  to  attend  the 
Bulgar  churches.  Entering  tlius  into  permanent  con- 
nection through  life  with  the  Bulgar  priests,  who 
performed  to  them  all  the  church  rites,  baptisms, 
matrimonies,  funerals,  the  Serbs  of  Macedonia  came 
under  the  permanent  influence  of  the  Bulgar  political 
propagators.  Yet  they  were  able  to  preserve  their 
language,  their  customs  (for  instance  the  "  Slava," 
which  Bulgars  have  not)  national  songs,  costumes,  &c. 

Having  no  other  schools,  except  the  Bulgar  and 
Greek  schools,  the  Serbs  were  obliged  to  send  their 
children  to  the  Bulgar  schools,  as  the  Bulgar  language 
by  its  similarity  with  the  Serl)  language  was  more 
accessible  to  the  children  than  the  Greek  language  of 
the  Greek  schools.  This  school  dilemma  of  the  Serbs  the 
Bulgar  teachers  were  exploiting  for  the  benefit  of  the 
Bulgar  propaganda.  Namely  :  they  declared  to  the 
Serbs,  that  they  could  take  their  children  into  the 
Bulgar  schools  only  if  they — the  parents — declare 
formally  that  they  themselves  were  Bulgars  !  Many 
Serbs,  practically  having  no  choice,  accepted  those 
conditions.  But  even  this  moral  coercion  to  the 
denationalisation  did  not  satisfy  the  Bulgar  propaganda. 
It  thought  it  necessary  to  undertake  still  more  drastic 
measures  for  the  rapid  Bulgarisation  of  Macedonia. 

Namely,  dui-ing  the  last  thirty  years  the  Bulgars 
introduced  terrorism  as  their  ally  in  Macedonia.  The 
horrible  activities  of  the  Bulgar  Commitadji's  bands 
are  well  known.  By  murder  and  fire  they  were  forcing 
the  Serbs  of  Macedonia  to  declare  themselves  to  belong 
to  the  Bulgar  nationality  ! 


But  even  this  roughest  and  most  cruel  method  did 
not  succeed  to  eradicate  the  national  consciousness  of 
the  Macedonian  Serbs.  The  best  proof  of  that  was 
given  by  the  events  of  1912,  when  the  victorious  Serb 
army  liberated  the  Macedonian  people  from  the  Turkish 
yoke  of  five  centuries,  and  when  that  people  received 
the  Serbs  as  their  own  brethren  and  liberators. 

Having  so  far  by  the  historical  facts  proved  the  com- 
plete groundlessness  of  the  Bulgar  pretensions  on 
Macedonia,  it  is  necessary  that  we  should,  for  the  sake 
of  better  information,  consider  and  solve  the  question  : 
Which  territories  properly  form  Macedonia  ? 

The  name  of  Macedonia  was  limited  on  the  majority 
of  the  older  maps  (since  the  XVIth  century),  as  well  as 
on  some  maps  with  classical  nomenclature  or  with 
reminiscences  on  such  nomenclature,  only  on  the  coast 
around  Salonica,  the  plain  of  Salonica,  especially  Cam- 
pagna,  and  on  the  territory  west  and  north-west  of  the 
same,  with  to-day's  Moglena,  The  principal  towns  of 
that  true  Macedonia  were  Edessa  (Voden)  and  Pella 
(to-day's  village  Postoe).  Later  the  Macedonian  king- 
dom was  extended,  and  the  name  was  given  to  the 
entire  territory  of  that  kjngdom. 

DiflPerent  was  the  conception  of  Macedonia  during 
the  time  of  the  Roman  Republic  and  in  the  beginning 
of  the  Empire.  The  Upper  Struma  and  Yardar  have 
as  yet  not  belonged  to  it,  but  in  the  beginning  Mace- 
donia comprised  also  Greece  up  to  Morea,  Thessaly  and 
Epirus,  the  Southern  and  Central  Albania  up  to  Drim  ; 
but  since  the  time  of  Augustus  only  the  last  named 
countries  without  Greece  were  comprised  in  Macedonia. 
In  the  Byzantine  times  that  conception  was  often 

During  the  Serbian  and  Bulgarian  conquests  the 
name  has  been  almost  entirely  lost.  Btit  towards  the 
end  of  the  XVth  and  during  the  XYIth  century  many 
Balkan  countries,  as   for  instance,  Old  Sei-bia,  Zetta, 


Albania,  Biilgaria,  Bosnia,  Hertsegovina,  were  marked 
as  Macedonia.  The  foreign  and  national  authors  com- 
prised all  those  cou]irries  under  the  name  of  Macedonia, 
simply,  as  J.  Ruvarats  proved  it,  as  a  reminiscence  on 
the  classical  world  and  classical  nomenclature. 

Besides  this,  just  mentioned,  oldest  conception  of 
Macedonia,  the  most  competent  scientific  authority  on 
the  geography  of  the  Balkan  Peninsula,  Professor 
Cvijich,  of  the  Belgrade  University,  has  not  found  any 
confirmation  for  other  historical  conceptions  of  Mace- 
donia. But  on  many  of  the  mentioned  maps  ]\Iacedonia 
appears  to  comprise  this  territorj^  starting  from  the 
southern  boundary  of  the  Scopska,  Crna  gora  (Kara 
Dagh)  down  the  Vardar  to  Salonica.  Consequently 
Macedonia  comprises  principally  the  central  and  lower 
valley  of  the  Vardar,  the  country  around  great  lakes 
in  the  West  and  up  to  Struma,  and  on  some  points  up 
to  Mesta  in  the  East. 

What  is  "Old  Serbia"  and  what  are 
HER  Boundaries  ? 

Now  we  come  to  another  question,  namely  :  What  is 
"  Old  Serbia "  and  what  are  her  boundaries  ?  The 
answer  ought  to  be  supplied  by  historical  and  scientific 

The  conception  of  Old  Serbia  and  Macedonia  can  be. 
scientifically  fixed  only  on  the  basis  of  those  maps 
which  have  appeared  before  the  first  decades  of  the 
XlXth  century,  before  the  liberation  of  Serbia  and 
before  the  appearance  of  the  separate  and  antagonistic 
Serb  and  Bulgar  tendencies. 

Professor  Cvijich  has  studied  all  the  maps  since  the 
XVIth  century,  when  better  and  more  complete  maps 
of  the  European  countries  began  to  be  made,  in  which 
instead  of  the  classical  names  the  national  names  of 
the  countries,  provinces  and  other  geographical  objects 


were  introduced.  From  that  time  up  to  the  end  of  the 
XYIIIth  centur}-  the  most  exact  maps  of  the  Balkan 
Peninsula  are  the  Italian  ones,  more  especially  the 
Venetian  ones,  then  the  Mercator's  maps  and  those  of 
the  "  French  Roj'al  Geographers." 

On  all  those  maps  the  name  Serbia  stretches  to  some 
territories  to  the  south  of  the  mountain  Sliar  and  of  the 
Skopska  Crna  Gora.  On  the  maps,  made  by  the 
"  Geographers  of  the  Venetian  Republic,"*  at  the  name 
of  the  town  Skoplye  it  is  regularly  marked  '■'Metropolis 
della  Sey^viay  On  great  number  of  maps  prepared  by 
Joh.  Bapt.  Homann — from  the  first  half  of  the  XVIIIth 
century — Serbia  comprises  Skoplye,  Kratovo  and  Kius- 
tendil  districts.  Macedonia  on  those  maps  begins 
considerably  to  the  South  from  Skoplye. 

On  the  maps  which  the  heirs  of  Homann  continued 
to  publish  in  the  beginning  of  the  XlXth  century 
(1802,  1805,  etc.).  Serbia  comprises  not  only  Xovi  Bazar 
and  Kossovo  tei'ritories,  but  also  Seoplye  and  Kratovo. 
So  it  was  in  all  better  old  geographies  in  which  Serbia 
was  described  by  her  boundaries. 

Further,  it  is  known  that  that  conception  of  Serbia 
was  not  only  cartographic  and  literary,  but  lived  with 
the  people  themselves.  The  inhabitants  of  Kratovo, 
Skoplj^e,  Owche  Folye  called  their  country  always 
Serbian  country.  Therefore  it  was  quite  natural,  that 
after  the  liberation  of  Serbia,  the  Skoplye,  Kratovo  and 
other  territories  of  the  Kossovo  Vilayet  have  been  called 
Old  Serbia  for  the  distinction  from  the  autonomous 
Modern  Serbia. 

TJte  conception  "  Old  Serbia  "  has  therefore  not  been 
created  for  the  sake  of  the  natiimal  pretensions,  and  the 
Southern  boundaries  of  Old  Serbia  must  be  extended 
beyond  Shar  Planina,  in  the  main  on  the  territories  of 
the  former  Kossovo  Vilayet^  on  the  territories  which 
to-day  the  Bulgars — as  ive  have  seen — without  any 
foundation  call  Macedonia.,  only  in  order  to  justify 
their  claims  on  that  purely  Serb  country. 

*V.  Cornell  of  1698  year  in  Corso  Geographico. 


Let  us  now  conclude.  It  is  very  difficult  to  draw  an 
absolutely  exact  boundary  between  the  Serb  and  Bulgar 
elements  in  Macedonia,  taking  that  country  in  her 
wider  conception.  The  principal  reason  for  that  diffi- 
culty consists  in  that  circumstance,  that  those  two 
peoples — according  to  their  tongue  so  similar  to  each 
other — so  imperceptibly  pass  one  into  the  other  in  the 
limitroph  territories,  that  it  is  impossible  to  say  quite 
exactly  where  the  Serb  ceases  and  where  the  Bulgar 
commences.  Still  less  is  that  possible  to  fix  for  the 
earlier  periods,  that  we  could  be  enabled  according  to 
their  ethnographic  condition  to  measure  later  changes. 

It  could  he,  Jioivever,  taken  as  approximately  exact, 
that  the  ethnogt^aphic  boundary  between  the  Serbs  and 
Bulgcu's  in  Macedonia  runs  by  the  valley  of  the  river 
Struma.  To  the  East  of  that  line  the  Bulgar s  are  in 
majority,  and  to  the  West  the  Serbs. 

The  North-Eastern  part  of  Macedonia  is  inhabited  by 
the  Bulgar  element.  Those  Bulgars  are  called  SJioppi 
(in  plural,  Shop  in  singular).  They  have  emigrated 
into  that  part  of  Macedonia  from  Samokov,  Dupnitsa 
and  Kiustendil  mountainous  districts.  They  occupy 
now  the  basin  of  Razlog,  the  valley  of  Mesta  up  to 
Momina  Klissura,  and  also  the  former  Upper  Djuma 
district  along  the  Struma  up  to  the  town  of  Melnik. 
Towards  the  South  in  this  part  of  the  Eastern  Mace- 
donia Bulgars  are  mixed  with  Turks  and  Pomaks,  and 
on  the  coast  they  are  mixed  with  the  Greek  element. 

The  Serb  element  in  the  Central  and  Western  Mace- 
donia is  mixed  with  other  non-Slav  nations — Albanians, 
Turks,  Greeks  and  Arumuns.  There  are  also  many, 
and  distributed  throughout  all  the  countrj-,  the  so-called 
Muhadjirs  (the  emigrants)  from  Serbia,  Bulgaria, 
Bosnia,  Hertsegovina  and  Montenegro.  Amongst  the 
Serbs  in  Macedonia  live  also  former  Christians  con- 
verted to  Islam.  Those  of  Kichevo  call  themselves 
Apovtsi,  and  those  of  Tikvesh  call  themselves  Turks. 
All  the  Macedonian  converts  to  Muhammedan  faith 
speak  Serb  language,  and  have  preserved  many  of  the 
Serb  customs. 


The  Turkish  population  of  Macedonia  can  be  divided 
in  three  great  groups,  one  of  the  Sea-coast,  one  of  the 
Vardar,  and  the  third  one  of  Sari-Gyol.  Besides  those 
three  groups  there  are  Turks  also  living  in  all  the  towns 
of  Macedonia. 

The  Greek  population  of  Macedonia  forms  two  special 
settlements,  one  on  the  South-East  of  Macedonia  on 
the  yEgean  coast,  and  the  other  in  the  vallej^  of  the 
river  Bistritsa,  in  the  Western  Macedonia. 

Arumuns  are  the  Roman  nation  in  the  Balkan  Penin- 
sula. They  have  two  distinct  tribes,  the  Karaguns  and 
Farsherioti.  Arumuns  are  to  be  found  in  all  parts  of 
Macedonia  as  tradesmen,  innkeepers  and  shepherds. 
The  Arumiins  of  Moglena  form  a  third  group,  occupied 
by  agriculture. 

The  Albanians  live  mixed  with  Serbs  in  the  North- 
Western  part  of  Macedonia. 

Jews  are  to  be  found  in  towns,  but  most  of  them  in 

Gipsies  are  dispersed  everywhere  in  the  country. 

And  at  last — there  are  Circassians  in  the  district  of 

Examining  all  the  written  monuments  with  reference 
to  the  Slavs  of  Macedonia,  from  the  oldest  time  to  the 
XlXth  century,  there  is  not  a  single  monument  in 
which  the  Macedonians  had  called  themselves  Bulgars, 
or  their  language  the  Bulgarian  language.